How to recover damaged files of Word, Excel or PowerPoint from your PC

MS Office File Repair, the best program to recover corrupt documents

Over the years, Microsoft Office, as the most popular office software suite among PC users is, it has become a standard to work with any type of office document and indispensable tool for both professionals and students. Prepare reports, prepare a presentation to show to a customer or create a spreadsheet with sales figures are part of everyday life of any office work while utilities Office are also essential for drafting university work, generate passes slides for a group or graphically display the results of a laboratory test.

Office documents in our store valuable information, which we have invested much time and we would not miss it for the world. Therefore, blood-curdling us every time we try to open a previously saved file on your computer and we jump an error message warning us about the inability to access the file in question, either a Word document, Excel or PowerPoint, because it is corrupted or damaged.

Error message when attempting to open Microsoft Excel file corruptError message when attempting to open Microsoft Excel file corrupt

What is it that my files are damaged or corrupted? There are multiple reasons why Office you can throw the typical pop corrupt or damaged file, but could summarize the causes in three possible scenarios.

  1. improper system shutdown: It is always advisable to close all programs and use the appropriate command to turn off your PC, but maybe due to a power outage or a sudden shutdown your computer is turned off with any open document, which can lead to file corruption in question.
  2. Virus infection: I know very well that computer viruses are malicious programs that can damage committed by any file saved to your computer, including your office documents, making it impossible to correct opening and reading. If you are infected, it is very possible that your Office files end up damaged.
  3. Bad sectors on your hard drive: With the passage of time some parts of your storage unit, whether internal, external or portable, can end up damaged. If you just keep your document in one of these areas, there is a risk that the file will end up being corrupt.

How to recover my corrupt office documents?

That said, Microsoft Office integrates itself a utility for recovering damaged files and often this internal tool it will be sufficient to recover our files. But sometimes we have to resort to programs developed by third parties; There are many alternatives available but one of the best options is MS Office File Repair Toolkit Wondershare, a program able to restore damaged Word documents, Excel and PowerPoint, plus ZIP compressed files that have become corrupt.

Wondershare main interface of MS Office File RepairWondershare main interface of MS Office File Repair

This software works as a all in one able to correct all problems related to any of the Microsoft Office tools or compression program, or we can install each of its components as applications Standalone as best suits us, because it can usually only work with Word files, so it would not be necessary to install the complete package tools. In that case we would work with Word Repair, Excel and PowerPoint Repair Repair separately.

Key Features of Wondershare Microsoft Repair

In the case of choosing the option multiformat able to solve problems with Word, Excel or PowerPoint from the same interface, you should know that the program Wondershare has the following characteristics:

Word File Repair

  • Repair Word files keeping titles, text, fonts, images, fields and original links.
  • DOC and DOCX recovers inaccessible files or showing garbled characters.
  • Three repair options: simple, advanced and RAW mode.
  • Three possible ways to preview the recovered file: entire document, text filtering or RAW text.

Repair Excel files

  • Repair any problem of corruption in Excel files while maintaining tables, graphs, leaves, cells, images, comments and original filters.
  • Able to repair files XLS and XLSX or individual lots.
  • It displays a preview of the file before recovery.

Repair PowerPoint files

  • Restores files in PowerPoint PPT, PPX and PPTM format maintaining the original layout of the slides with all his titles, texts and images.
  • Ability to retrieve multiple presentations and slide shows at once or solve corruption problems individually.
  • File preview before deciding if you want to rush his recovery.

ZIP file repair

  • Repair compressed files in ZIP format that can not be opened due to viruses, bad sectors on the hard disk, incomplete downloads or incompatible compression format.
  • Recover ZIP files up to 800MB in size.
  • ZIP compatible and its variants are not password protected until WinZip 19.0.

How to Repair files with MS Office File Repair Wondershare

Obviously, it is desirable that never have to use this tool but just in case, we teach you how to use Wondershare MS Office File Repair Toolkit to recover or Microsoft Office files repair damaged or corrupted from your PC. The first, of course, is to get the installation file downloaded via the link offered few paragraphs above. Once installed on your PC and executed, the program offers the same interface from the ability to recover files from Word, Excel, PowerPoint or ZIP.

Excel recovery corrupt filesExcel recovery corrupt files

For this particular example we will show you how to retrieve an Excel spreadsheet, so proceed to click on the second button Excel File Repair thus we reach a very simple interface which, truth be told, does not require much explanation. From the button Add File we can navigate to the file that is giving us problems or simply choose a wider program to scan the corrupt files directory after clicking on the button Scan.

Scanning damaged Excel filesScanning damaged Excel files

The process only takes a few seconds and after that time the program will show us a preview the recovered file. If everything is in order and we expected the state can save the recovered document so that the next time you try to open directly from Excel does not give us any problems.

L’évolution de l’iPhone: le téléphone d’origine Apple iPhone X

Différents modèles d'iPhone à travers l'histoire

Autant qu'il malgré la pomme détracteurs de la marque, l'iPhone dans ses différentes versions et modèles est le smartphone par excellence par aspirent à plus ou moins semblables fanboys. Avec l'introduction du nouvel iPhone 8 iPhone 8 Plus et iPhone X Ils sont maintenant onze générations d'iPhone lancé depuis le premier a fait son apparition en 2007, avec un total de 18 modèles différents.

Petit ne l'iPhone lancé en Juin 2007 Original avec trois nouveaux terminaux 2017. Ni esthétiquement et en termes de performance ou ressembler à quelque chose spécifications techniques de ce dispositif, bien que tous ont en commun le label de qualité d'Apple. Regardons son évolution.

Toute l'histoire de l'iPhone

première génération

iPhone original

couverture arrière iPhone de première générationiPhone Quatrième de couverture première génération / Ryan licence CC modifiée Tir 2.0

  • Date de sortie: Juin 2007
  • OS: iOS 1.0
  • Affichage: 3.5" - 320 x 480 pixels
  • Stockage: 4, 8 et 16 GB
  • RAM: 128 MB
  • Caméra principale: 2 mégapixels
  • Caméra secondaire: Non
  • Batterie: 1400 mAh

IPhone première génération iPhone d'origine ou iPhone classique a continué à vendre plus de 6 millions d'unités et a été nommé comme Invention de l'année par le magazine Time en 2009.

deuxième génération

iPhone 3G

L'iPhone 3G a été le premier 3G capableL'iPhone 3G a été le premier capable 3G / sous la direction de Carl Berkeley 2.0 sous licence CC

  • Date de sortie: Juillet 2008
  • OS: iOS 2.0
  • Affichage: 3.5" - 320 x 480 pixels
  • Stockage: 8 et 16 GB
  • RAM: 128 MB
  • Caméra principale: 2 mégapixels
  • Caméra secondaire: Non
  • Batterie: 1500 mAh

Comme son nom l'indique l'iPhone 3G a été le premier téléphone d'Apple pour intégrer des capacités 3G et elle a vendu plus de 1 million d'unités seulement au cours du premier week-end était en vente.

troisième génération

iPhone 3GS

IPhone 3GS noir 16 GoIPhone 3GS noir 16 Go / William Hook licence CC 2.0 modifié

  • Date de sortie: Juin 2009
  • OS: iOS 3.0
  • Affichage: 3.5" - 320 x 480 pixels
  • Stockage: 8, 16 et 32 ​​GB
  • RAM: 256M
  • Appareil photo principal: 3 mégapixels
  • Caméra secondaire: Non
  • Batterie: 1219 mAh

La troisième génération de l'iPhone, présenté lors de la WWDC 2009 a été la doubler sa première RAM de 256 Mo et incorporer un modèle 32Go. Comme son prédécesseur a vendu des parts plus de 1 million le premier week-end des ventes.

quatrième génération

iPhone 4

L'iPhone 4 mis en évidence par son bord métalliqueL'iPhone 4 mis en évidence par son bord métallique / renatomitra modifié licence CC 2.0

  • Date de sortie: Juin 2010
  • OS: iOS 4.0 et iOS 4.25
  • Affichage: 3.5" - 640 x 960 pixels
  • Stockage: 8, 16 et 32 ​​GB
  • RAM: 512 Mo
  • caméra principale 5 Mpx
  • chambre secondaire 0,3 mégapixels
  • Batterie: 1.420 mAh

IPhone 4 représente une révolution esthétique par rapport à ses prédécesseurs avec des enceintes en verre, en plus d'une étape importante de flexion vers l'avant et la résolution l'introduction de la première chambre avant. Il est l'un des plus anciens iPhones d'histoire 4 ans.

cinquième génération

iPhone 4s

Donc, portait l'iPhone 4s 2011Donc, portait l'iPhone 4s 2011 / brett jordan modifié licence CC 2.0

  • Date de sortie: Octobre 2011
  • OS: iOS 5.0
  • Affichage: 3.5" - 640 x 960 pixels
  • Stockage: 8, 16, 32 et 64 GB
  • RAM: 512 Mo
  • Caméra principale: 8MP
  • chambre secondaire 0,3 mégapixels
  • Batterie: 1432 mAh

Avec exactement la même esthétique que son prédécesseur, l'iPhone 4S a été l'un des smartphones les plus vendus dans l'histoire la vente d'entre eux plus de 17 millions d'unités, 4 millions au cours de leur premier week-end.

sixième génération

iphone 5

L'iPhone 5 et était 4 poucesL'iPhone 5 et avait 4 pouces écran / brett jordan édité licence CC 2.0

  • Date de sortie: Septembre 2012
  • OS: iOS 7.0
  • Affichage: 4" - 640 x 1136 pixels
  • Stockage: 8, 16, 32 et 64 GB
  • RAM: 1 Go
  • Caméra principale: 8MP
  • Caméra secondaire: 1,2 Mpx
  • Batterie: 1.510 mAh

Avec la sixième génération, l'iPhone arrive premier à 4 pouces et 1 Go de RAM, avec plus de 5 millions d'unités au cours de leurs premiers jours sur le marché. Elle a été créée pour l'iPhone de la fièvre en Septembre.

septième génération

iPhone 5c

L'iPhone coloré 5c lancé en 2013L'iPhone coloré 5c lancé en 2013 / Kārlis Dambrāns modifié licence CC 2.0

  • Date de sortie: Septembre 2013
  • OS: iOS 7.0
  • Affichage: 4" - 640 x 1136 pixels
  • Stockage: 16, 32 et 64 GB
  • RAM: 1 Go
  • Caméra principale: 8MP
  • Caméra secondaire: 1,2 Mpx
  • Batterie: 1.560 mAh

Lancé par les 5S, il fait semblant d'être un iPhone à bas prix avec une coque en polycarbonate arrière, mais le fait est que son prix était très similaire à d'autres versions. Il a été le mettre en œuvre le premier iPhone en couleurs blanc, rose, jaune, vert et bleu, en plus du noir et blanc déjà traditionnel.

iPhone 5s

Écran de l'iPhone 5 s, le plus fin de la septième générationiPhone écran 5 s, le plus fin de la septième génération / Kārlis Dambrāns édité licence CC 2.0

  • Date de sortie: Septembre 2013
  • OS: iOS 7.0
  • Affichage: 4" - 640 x 1136 pixels
  • Stockage: 16, 32 et 64 GB
  • RAM: 1 Go
  • Caméra principale: 8MP
  • Caméra secondaire: 1,2 Mpx
  • Batterie: 1440 mAh

Lancé par le 5c, iPhone 5s était la premier à incorporer le bouton Touch ID Accueil appareil. Aussi est venu dans des couleurs différentes, quoique un peu plus élégant que son petit frère: l'espace, l'or et gris argent. En un an, il a vendu plus de 10 millions d'unités.

huitième génération

iPhone 6

L'iPhone 6 et diagonale de 4,7 poucesL'iPhone 6 et modifié en diagonale de 4,7 pouces / Kārlis Dambrāns licence CC 2.0

  • Date de sortie: Septembre 2014
  • OS: iOS 8.0
  • Affichage: 4.7" - 750 x 1334 pixels
  • Stockage: 16, 64 et 128 Go
  • RAM: 1 Go
  • Caméra principale: 8MP
  • Caméra secondaire: 1,2 Mpx
  • Batterie: 1.810 mAh

L'avant-dernière génération d'iPhones à ce jour Il a fait un bond considérable. L'iPhone de 4,7 pouces 6 était la moins grande des deux dispositifs présentés en Septembre 2014. Avec son frère aîné, a vendu plus de 75 millions d'unités au quatrième trimestre.

iPhone 6 Plus

On dirait que ce fut la plus grande histoire de l'iPhoneOn dirait que ce fut la plus grande histoire de l'iPhone / édité Omar Jordan Fawahl licence CC 2.0

  • Date de sortie: Septembre 2014
  • OS: iOS 8.0
  • Affichage: 5.5" - 1.080 x 1.920 pixels
  • Stockage: 16, 64 et 128 Go
  • RAM: 1 Go
  • Caméra principale: 8MP
  • Caméra secondaire: 1,2 Mpx
  • Batterie: 2915 mAh

Si l'iPhone de 4,7 pouces 6 étaient déjà une révolution, il convient de mentionner 5,5 pouces Il a laissé en état de choc à tous ceux qui ont critiqué le grand appareils d'autres fabricants, tout en faisant l'éloge de la petite taille des smartphones d'Apple.

neuvième génération

iPhone 6S

La gamme de couleurs disponibles pour les 6S iPhoneLa gamme de couleurs disponibles pour les 6S iPhone

  • Date de sortie: Septembre ici à 2015
  • OS: iOS 9.0
  • Affichage: 4.7" - 750 x 1334 pixels
  • Stockage: 16, 64 et 128 Go
  • RAM: 2 Go
  • Caméra principale 12 Mpx
  • Caméra secondaire 5 Mpx
  • Batterie: 1,715 mAh

IPhone 6s hérite du meilleur de l'iPhone 6 avec un écran identique, mais l'amélioration de ses performances avec le nouveau processeur A9 et aurait la RAM deux fois plus que son prédécesseur. Les caméras ont également amélioré avec possibilité d'enregistrer 4K, et les promesses roses pour provoquer une sensation.

iPhone 6s plus

IPhone 6s plus par rapport à son petit frèreIPhone 6s plus par rapport à son petit frère

  • Date de sortie: Septembre ici à 2015
  • OS: iOS 9.0
  • Affichage: 5.5" - 1.080 x 1.920 pixels
  • Stockage: 16, 64 et 128 Go
  • RAM: 2 Go
  • Caméra principale 12 Mpx
  • Caméra secondaire 5 Mpx
  • Batterie: 2915 mAh

De toute évidence, l'iPhone 6S Plus est l'iPhone 6 Plus ce que les 6s à 6. Ce modèle devient le meilleur iPhone jamais en termes de performance avec la nouvelle puce A9, l'amélioration de l'appareil photo à 12 et 5 Mpx respectivement l'arrivée de la 3D tactile ce nouveau téléphone.

iPhone

gamme de couleurs iPhone SEgamme de couleurs iPhone SE / Nobuyuki Hayashi modifié licence CC 2.0

  • Date de sortie: Mars 2016
  • OS: iOS 9.0
  • Affichage: 4" - 640 x 1136 pixels
  • Stockage: 16 et 64 GB
  • RAM: 2 Go
  • Caméra principale 12 Mpx
  • Caméra secondaire: 1,2 Mpx
  • Batterie: 1624 mAh

IPhone SE ou édition spéciale a marqué un retour au petit écran (dans ce cas, 4 pouces) après l'incursion d'Apple dans de plus en plus grandes diagonales. En ce qui concerne la conception, son apparence est presque identique à l'iPhone 5 s (Résolution de l'écran même), mais avec des composants un peu mieux, doubler la RAM, ce qui augmente la capacité de la batterie et le maintien de la même caméra arrière que l'iPhone 6S, avec qui il a également processeur actions. C'est, aunaba composantes huitième génération de conception neuvième.

dixième génération

iPhone 7

L'iPhone de couleur noire 7L'iPhone de couleur noire 7

  • Date de sortie: Septembre 2016
  • Système d'exploitation: iOS 10
  • Affichage: 4.7" - 750 x 1334 pixels
  • Stockage: 32, 128 et 256 Go
  • RAM: 2 Go
  • Caméra principale 12 Mpx
  • Caméra secondaire 7 Mpx
  • Batterie: 1 960 mAh

La dixième génération de morsure de pomme de marque smartphones a été déposée le 7 Septembre 2016, lors de la keynote annuelle d'Apple, à la même conférence où ont été annoncés le fameux casque AirPod et jeu éventuellement mobile de l'année, GO permis Pokémon, super Mario Run. IPhone 7 est très similaire à l'iPhone 6s, avec quelques améliorations à la caméra avant, plus d'espace de stockage interne par défaut et, bien sûr, la nouvelle version du système d'exploitation mobile iOS 10. D'autre part, les téléphones qui sont venus vente le 16 Septembre est venu avec un nouvelle gamme de couleurs incluant le fameux jet noir, et comme l'innovation la plus importante est l'absence remarquable de la prise jack 3,5 mm pour la sortie audio, maintenant remplacé par un port de la foudre.

iPhone 7 plus

La gamme de couleurs de l'iPhone 7 plusLa gamme de couleurs de l'iPhone 7 plus

  • Date de sortie: Septembre 2016
  • Système d'exploitation: iOS 10
  • Affichage: 5.5" - 1.080 x 1.920 pixels
  • Stockage: 32, 128 et 256 Go
  • RAM: 3 Go
  • Caméra principale 12 Mpx
  • Caméra secondaire 7 Mpx
  • Batterie: 2 900 mAh

IPhone 7 Plus est une version de l'iPhone supervitaminada 7. Comme petit frère, est esthétiquement identique à 6s iPhone bien un peu plus léger, avec la différence que les nouvelles couleurs sont ajoutées, une petite amélioration de l'appareil photo plus selfies et une augmentation des espaces de rangement. Logiquement, ce téléphone est maintenant le haut de gamme de tous les smartphones et Apple première marque incorporer 3 Go de RAM, élimine également la sortie audio de 3,5 mm, l'une des décisions les plus controversées faites par Cupertino ces dernières années.

onzième génération

iPhone 8

Avant iPhone 8 iPhone 8 PlusAvant iPhone 8 iPhone 8 Plus

  • Date de sortie: Septembre 2017
  • Système d'exploitation: iOS 11
  • Affichage: 4.7" - 750 x 1334 pixels
  • Stockage: 64 et 256 Go
  • RAM: 2 Go
  • Caméra principale 12 Mpx
  • Caméra secondaire 7 Mpx
  • Batterie: 1.821 mAh

Le 12 Septembre, 2017, Tim Cook a pris la scène du nouveau campus du parc d'Apple (Cupertino) pour présenter la prochaine génération de la gamme des smartphones de la marque Apple. Le plus petit des trois annoncé, l'iPhone 8 est l'évolution naturelle de l'iPhone 7 en gardant les mêmes tailles et résolutions d'écran, et enfin l'élimination de la 32 Go de mémoire interne qui était déjà un peu faible. La principale nouveauté du premier téléphone qui intègre l'usine iOS 11 est la variation de métal pour dispositif de retour de verre, faciliter la recharge sans fil.

iPhone 8 Plus

IPhone 8 et 8 Plus sont étanchesIPhone 8 et 8 Plus sont étanches

  • Date de sortie: Septembre 2017
  • Système d'exploitation: iOS 11
  • Affichage: 5.5" - 1.080 x 1.920 pixels
  • Stockage: 64 et 256 Go
  • RAM: 3 Go
  • Caméra principale 12 mégapixels en double
  • Caméra secondaire 7 Mpx
  • Batterie: 2675 mAh

Si l'iPhone en Août a été l'évolution de l'iPhone 7 ne devrait surprendre personne que l'iPhone est également 8 Plus 7 Plus. Comme dans le cas de son frère cadet, Apple a maintenu un an pour les mêmes dimensions et résolutions d'écran (plus RAM), réduisant ainsi une certaine capacité de la batterie de 2 900 mAh passant à 2675 mAh. Il faut aussi mentionner l'introduction d'une nouvelle puce (également présent dans le 8 iPhone) Bionic A11 promet d'être jusqu'à 70% plus efficace que son prédécesseur. La section photographique est également remarquable avec deux nouveaux capteurs.

iPhone X

tout le front écran iPhone Xtout le front écran iPhone X

  • Date de sortie: Septembre 2017
  • Système d'exploitation: iOS 11
  • Affichage: 5.8" - 1125 x 2436 pixels
  • Stockage: 64 et 256 Go
  • RAM: 3 Go
  • Caméra principale 12 mégapixels en double
  • Caméra secondaire 7 Mpx
  • Batterie: 2716 mAh

Mais sans doute le produit vedette note dominante était le nouvel iPhone X, un téléphone qui rompt avec la conception précédente chez Apple, offrant 5,8 pouces téléphone intelligent pratiquement sans cadre où tout est l'écran. De plus l'écran utilise la technologie OLED, contrairement aux écrans LCD des deux écran de l'iPhone 8. Tanta élimine l'utilisation de TouchID (reconnaissance des empreintes digitales) pour entrer dans la nouvelle FaceID, la technologie de reconnaissance faciale qui promet d'être révolutionnaire.

jwplayerLoad fonction () {

Yutaka} Tsutano modifié licence CC 2.0

citoyenneté numérique: ce que cela signifie et comment ce concept de citoyen

Paysage urbain

Ces derniers temps l'ère de la technologie de l'immédiateté progresse tellement qui est venu d'intégrer les aspects de la vie quotidienne, dans le passé, nous ne pouvions pas imaginer avoir. Les citoyens et non seulement interagir avec le monde physique autour d'eux, mais aussi avoir une vie numérique riche: ouvrir leurs blogs personnels, d'interagir dans les réseaux sociaux qui partagent différents types de contenu, de collaborer des campagnes en ligne, soit en diffusant des informations à leur sujet ou la signature de soutien et ainsi de suite. Aujourd'hui, certains organismes publics encouragent également la participation des personnes sur Internet, qui a créé un concept appelé « citoyen numérique ».

Nous pouvons donner comme définition de ce qui est un citoyen numérique une personne qui utilise la technologie de l'information pour contribuer à la société, le gouvernement de leur ville ou du pays et de la politique. Un citoyen numérique est une personne qui utilise Internet activement et efficacement. Pour une personne est considérée comme telle doit avoir des compétences et de l'expérience en utilisant le réseau soit sur les ordinateurs, les téléphones portables et conçus pour interagir avec les appareils organisations publiques et privées.

On peut considérer que la début de la citoyenneté numérique le moment où tout enfant, adolescent ou adulte propre compte de messagerie est créé sur les photos de partage réseau, acheter via Internet et participe activement à la politique ou les questions sociales.

Cependant, le processus de devenir un citoyen numérique Il va bien au-delà simple, l'activité Internet. La citoyenneté numérique peut être combinée à la promotion de l'égalité des chances économiques ainsi qu'une augmentation de la participation politique et le devoir civique.

Les différences entre la citoyenneté traditionnelle et numérique

Comme l'a noté l'auteur Jose Manuel Robles Morales dans son livre citoyenneté numérique: Introduction à un nouveau concept de citoyenneté qui est disponible là-bas ici- les différences fondamentales entre les citoyens numérique traditionnel et citoyen.

Selon cet auteur expose, la citoyenneté des années 90 du XX siècle se sent désaffection à l'égard de la société et de la politique qui aurait pu conduire à différents pays du premier monde dans la situation où vous êtes aujourd'hui. Pour une comparaison, cela reflète parfaitement la situation de la société espagnole en ce qui concerne la classe politique et la situation dans laquelle la masse sociale elle-même.

La citoyenneté numérique, cependant, Il décide de s'impliquer dans les questions sociales et politiques autant que vous le pouvez diffusion sur Internet comme arme principale, la critique et la construction. Un exemple de ceci serait les nouveaux outils de participation que les nouveaux partis politiques espagnols ont mis à la disposition de ses membres et sympathisants sont la participation ou les plates-formes -et foros- et leur utilisation des réseaux sociaux tels les personnes.

La vérité est que, en tant que telle, la citoyenneté numérique plus installés dans certains pays que dans d'autres. En Estonie, par exemple, il est considéré comme l'Internet comme un droit humain fondamental et permettre à ses citoyens d'effectuer leurs transactions à travers le réseau et de voter entièrement électronique.

Les réseaux sociaux font partie de la citoyenneté numériqueLes réseaux sociaux font partie de la citoyenneté numérique

Les neuf éléments de la citoyenneté numérique

Comme nous le lisons sur la citoyenneté numérique existe neuf éléments définissant la nationalité numérique:

  1. L'accès au monde numérique. C'est le plus critique pour devenir une exigence citoyenne numérique. En raison de difficultés telles que le statut socio-économique ou la localisation des personnes ne peuvent pas accéder régulièrement. Les écoles et les bibliothèques publiques peuvent aider à atténuer ce problème.
  2. commerce numérique. Ce concept fait référence à la capacité des utilisateurs à reconnaître qu'une grande partie de l'économie est contrôlée en ligne. Il a également à voir avec la compréhension des dangers et avantages de l'achat sur le net, en utilisant des cartes de crédit et autres.
  3. communication numérique. Cet élément porte sur la compréhension des différents médias en ligne, allant de courrier électronique à la messagerie instantanée.
  4. la culture numérique. Avec cette référence à la connaissance sur l'utilisation de différents appareils numériques, il est fait. Un exemple de cela serait d'apprendre à utiliser correctement un moteur de recherche en fonction du contexte pas la même chose Google recherche dans Data- base.
  5. étiquette numérique. Il se réfère à savoir comment se comporter lors de l'utilisation de communication numérique. Chaque support a ses propres règles.
  6. lois numériques. Dans ce contexte, la législation appliquée au contenu du téléchargement illégal, le plagiat, le piratage, la création de virus, des campagnes de spam, le vol d'identité, la cyberintimidation et se déplace donc.
  7. droits numériques et responsabilités. Ce concept fait référence aux droits des citoyens numériques, tels que la vie privée ou la liberté d'expression est.
  8. santé numérique. citoyens numériques doivent connaître le stress physique de l'utilisation d'Internet ainsi que de savoir ce qu'il faut faire pour ne pas créer signifie la dépendance.
  9. la sécurité numérique. Le neuvième élément fait référence aux citoyens devraient prendre les mesures de sécurité nécessaires pour déplacer le réseau avec facilité.

Tout le monde peut être un citoyen numérique si vous répondez aux neuf élémentsTout le monde peut être un citoyen numérique si vous répondez aux neuf éléments

La citoyenneté numérique dans le premier et le Tiers Monde

Dans les pays du premier monde, il existe une capacité plutôt que les restes de lien vers leurs gouvernements respectifs à divers sites Web. Ces sites peuvent travailler de plusieurs façons: clarifier la nouvelle législation, les tendances et les futurs objectifs de la politique éducative à mettre en œuvre, d'aider les candidats politiques et de permettre aux citoyens d'exprimer leur opinion politique.

Maintenant, déplacez certains aspects de l'Internet de la vie politique aussi a ses inconvénients. Le manque d'accès à Internet dans des domaines spécifiques peut réduire la participation des citoyens, étant donné que de nombreuses procédures juridiques de base ont été déplacés au réseau dans certains pays et ne peuvent être complété via Internet. En outre, de nombreuses entités culturelles et commerciales publient des informations que par le réseau.

Cela signifie que les citoyens non-numériques Vous ne pouvez pas recevoir ces informations, ce qui pourrait conduire à l'exclusion sociale ou la stagnation économique. Le soi-disant « fracture numérique » est maintenant un sujet qui est débattu avec passion et dans certains endroits affecte une grande partie de la population. Ce serait le cas de l'Amérique latine, où 49% de la population est technologiquement isolée comme indiqué dans le journal mexicain El Financiero.

Dans les pays du Tiers-Monde citoyens numériques sont très rares. Le groupe se développe sur les personnes qui utilisent la technologie pour surmonter les obstacles incluent des difficultés dans le développement, la corruption, voire des conflits militaires. Les exemples incluent les utilisateurs de Ushahidi lors des élections au Kenya en 2007, ainsi que les manifestants du printemps arabe qui ont utilisé les médias sociaux pour documenter la répression des manifestations.

e-Estonie, le meilleur exemple de la citoyenneté numérique dans le premier monde

Nous avons dit que le gouvernement estonien a réussi à intégrer de façon transparente la citoyenneté numérique au sein de leurs structures. Pour ce faire, vous avez utilisé un connu sous le nom de mouvement e-Estonie. Grâce à ce mouvement voulait faciliter l'interaction des citoyens avec l'État en utilisant des solutions électroniques, pour ce qui ont utilisé divers sites et même des applications mobiles.

Lorsque le pays balte est revenu à être une nation indépendante en 1991, le premier ministre, Mart Laar, a aidé promouvoir un processus de modernisation qui a jeté les bases pour amener l'Estonie à l'ère numérique. Entre autres, ils ont construit leur propre système téléphonique numérique, et en 1998 toutes les écoles avaient accès à Internet. L'accès au réseau est devenu un droit humain fondamental pour les Estoniens en 2000, qui a étendu également aux zones rurales.

2003 apparaissent dans le réseau Skype, messagerie client et les appels vidéo est maintenant la propriété de Microsoft, que des millions de personnes utilisent quotidiennement et qui a été écrit par les développeurs estoniens. Cela est généralement cité comme un exemple d'une société où les entreprises et les individus ont appris à faire un usage novateur des nouvelles technologies.

Il y a deux concepts qui nécessitent une attention particulière: l'électronique à domicile et le vote électronique. résidence électronique en Estonie a été créée en 2014, donnant l'occasion aux investisseurs étrangers d'ouvrir des entreprises dans le pays balte partout dans le monde, mais pas les mêmes droits en tant que citoyen droit complet. Le vote électronique a été une grande innovation, parce que maintenant tous les citoyens peuvent participer au processus démocratique en Estonie à domicile.

jwplayerLoad fonction () {

}

Télécharger des fichiers à MEGA

Télécharger des fichiers à MEGA

Remarquez comment télécharger des fichiers MEGA en utilisant soit le système par défaut comme MEGAsync, le client de bureau pour synchroniser des fichiers locaux avec votre espace dans le nuage.

More

Surrealist photographs Erik Johansson, art with Photoshop

Collage Creations Erik Johansson

Erik Johansson is in the creative process of a gallery of incredibly surreal images by combining the use of raw materials, photographs and surprising changes made with Adobe Photoshop.

Incredible optical illusions of Erik Johansson

This Swedish photographer aims to capture ideas with all the materials that go through your mind. The result is a totally imaginary vision, images that if they were absolutely impossible, might seem realistic.

Photography is the way I collect material for translating ideas I have in my head.

Models of cardboard, paint, hundreds of photographs and hours of photo editing They get such a result surprising. impossible places and imaginary scenes make sense even challenge the reality we are used to seeing through our eyes.

Each of his works is unique and the following videos will show the same artist How does its job, how many hours you spend and materials needed for each photo.

Cut & fold

Drifting Away

Landfall

Endless Stories

closing Out

Soundscapes

As you can see, the artist It gets blur the lines between the inside and outside, between tangible and intangible, defies the laws of physics turning something totally malleable universe. Under his tinkering, roads are blurred, the snow becomes sheet and broken man as a vase. With all these wonders Johansson It is getting to make a name in a world with lots of competition and will soon be on everyone's lips professional photographers, no doubt.

If you want to enjoy the rest of his work, Erik Johansson shows each of his works on his website.

source | Erik Johansson Web

jwplayerLoad function () {

}

The evolution of the iPhone: the original phone Apple iPhone X

Different models of iPhone throughout history

As much as he despite detractors brand apple, iPhone in its different versions and models is the quintessential smartphone by yearn for more and less fanboys alike. With the introduction of the new iPhone 8 iPhone 8 Plus and iPhone X They are now eleven generations of iPhone launched since the first one made its appearance in 2007, with a total of 18 different models.

Little does the original iPhone launched in June 2007 with three new terminals 2017. Neither aesthetically and in terms of performance or resemble something technical specifications this device, though all have in common the quality seal of Apple. Let's look at its evolution.

All iPhones history

First generation

Original iPhone

back cover first-generation iPhoneiPhone back cover first generation / Ryan Tir edited CC 2.0 license

  • Release Date: June 2007
  • OS: iOS 1.0
  • Display: 3.5" - 320 x 480 pixels
  • Storage: 4, 8 and 16 GB
  • RAM: 128 MB
  • Main Camera: 2 Megapixel
  • Secondary Camera: No
  • Battery: 1400 mAh

IPhone first generation original iPhone or iPhone classic went on to sell more than 6 million units and was named as Invention of the Year by Time magazine in 2009.

Second generation

iPhone 3G

The iPhone 3G was the first 3G capableThe iPhone 3G was the first capable 3G / edited Carl Berkeley licensed CC 2.0

  • Release Date: July 2008
  • OS: iOS 2.0
  • Display: 3.5" - 320 x 480 pixels
  • Storage: 8 and 16 GB
  • RAM: 128 MB
  • Main Camera: 2 Megapixel
  • Secondary Camera: No
  • Battery: 1500 mAh

As the name suggests the iPhone 3G was the Apple's first phone to incorporate 3G capabilities and it sold over 1 million units only during the first weekend it was on sale.

Third generation

iPhone 3GS

IPhone 3GS 16GB blackIPhone 3GS black 16GB / William Hook edited CC 2.0 license

  • Release Date: June 2009
  • OS: iOS 3.0
  • Display: 3.5" - 320 x 480 pixels
  • Storage: 8, 16 and 32 GB
  • RAM: 256M
  • Main camera: 3 Megapixel
  • Secondary Camera: No
  • Battery: 1,219 mAh

The third generation of iPhone, presented during the WWDC 2009 was the first double its RAM to 256MB and incorporate a 32GB model. Like its predecessor sold more than 1 million units the first weekend of sales.

Fourth generation

Iphone 4

The iPhone 4 highlighted by its metallic edgeThe iPhone 4 highlighted by its metallic / renatomitra edge edited CC 2.0 license

  • Release Date: June 2010
  • OS: iOS 4.0 and iOS 4.25
  • Display: 3.5" - 640 x 960 pixels
  • Storage: 8, 16 and 32 GB
  • RAM: 512 MB
  • Main Camera: 5 Mpx
  • secondary chamber 0.3 Megapixel
  • Battery: 1,420 mAh

IPhone 4 represented an aesthetic revolution compared to its predecessors with glass enclosures, in addition to a major step forward bending and resolution introducing the first front chamber. It is one of the oldest history iPhones 4 years.

Fifth generation

Iphone 4s

So wore the iPhone 4s 2011So wore the iPhone 4s 2011 / brett jordan edited CC 2.0 license

  • Release Date: October 2011
  • OS: iOS 5.0
  • Display: 3.5" - 640 x 960 pixels
  • Storage: 8, 16, 32 and 64 GB
  • RAM: 512 MB
  • Main Camera: 8MP
  • secondary chamber 0.3 Megapixel
  • Battery: 1,432 mAh

With exactly the same aesthetic than its predecessor, the iPhone 4s was one of the best-selling smartphones in history selling more than 17 million units, 4 million of them during their first weekend.

sixth generation

iPhone 5

The iPhone 5 and was 4 inchThe iPhone 5 and had 4 inch screen / brett jordan edited CC 2.0 license

  • Release Date: September 2012
  • OS: iOS 7.0
  • Display: 4" - 640 x 1136 pixels
  • Storage: 8, 16, 32 and 64 GB
  • RAM: 1 GB
  • Main Camera: 8MP
  • Secondary Camera: 1.2 Mpx
  • Battery: 1,510 mAh

With the sixth generation, the iPhone arrives first at 4 inch and 1 GB of RAM, selling more than 5 million units during their first days on the market. It premiered fever iPhone in September.

seventh generation

Iphone 5c

The colorful iPhone 5c launched in 2013The colorful iPhone 5c launched in 2013 / Kārlis Dambrāns edited CC 2.0 license

  • Release Date: September 2013
  • OS: iOS 7.0
  • Display: 4" - 640 x 1136 pixels
  • Storage: 16, 32 and 64 GB
  • RAM: 1 GB
  • Main Camera: 8MP
  • Secondary Camera: 1.2 Mpx
  • Battery: 1,560 mAh

Launched by the 5S, he pretended to be a low-cost iPhone with a rear polycarbonate shell, but the fact is that its price was very similar to other versions. Was the implement the first iPhone in white, pink, yellow, green and blue colors, besides the already traditional black and white.

Iphone 5s

Screen iPhone 5s, the highest end of the seventh generationScreen iPhone 5s, the highest end of the seventh generation / Kārlis Dambrāns edited CC 2.0 license

  • Release Date: September 2013
  • OS: iOS 7.0
  • Display: 4" - 640 x 1136 pixels
  • Storage: 16, 32 and 64 GB
  • RAM: 1 GB
  • Main Camera: 8MP
  • Secondary Camera: 1.2 Mpx
  • Battery: 1,440 mAh

Launched by the 5c, iPhone 5s was the first to incorporate the Touch ID button Home device. Also came in different colors, though somewhat more elegant than his little brother: space, gold and silver gray. In one year it sold more than 10 million units.

eighth generation

Iphone 6

The iPhone 6 and 4.7 inch diagonalThe iPhone 6 and 4.7-inch diagonal / Kārlis Dambrāns edited CC 2.0 license

  • Release Date: September 2014
  • OS: iOS 8.0
  • Display: 4.7" - 750 x 1334 pixels
  • Storage: 16, 64 and 128GB
  • RAM: 1 GB
  • Main Camera: 8MP
  • Secondary Camera: 1.2 Mpx
  • Battery: 1,810 mAh

The penultimate generation of iPhones to date It was a sizable jump. The 4.7-inch iPhone 6 was the least larger of the two devices submitted in September 2014. Along with his older brother, sold over 75 million units in the fourth quarter.

iPhone 6 Plus

It looks like that was the biggest iPhone historyLooks like that was the biggest iPhone history / edited Omar Jordan Fawahl licensed CC 2.0

  • Release Date: September 2014
  • OS: iOS 8.0
  • Display: 5.5" - 1,080 x 1,920 pixels
  • Storage: 16, 64 and 128GB
  • RAM: 1 GB
  • Main Camera: 8MP
  • Secondary Camera: 1.2 Mpx
  • Battery: 2,915 mAh

If the 4.7-inch iPhone 6 were already a revolution, mention should be 5.5 inches He left in shock to all those who criticized the large devices from other manufacturers, while praising the small size of Apple's smartphones.

ninth generation

iPhone 6S

The color range available for the iPhone 6SThe color range available for the iPhone 6S

  • Release Date: September 2015
  • OS: iOS 9.0
  • Display: 4.7" - 750 x 1334 pixels
  • Storage: 16, 64 and 128GB
  • RAM: 2 GB
  • Main camera 12 Mpx
  • Secondary Camera 5 Mpx
  • Battery: 1,715 mAh

IPhone 6s inherits the best of iPhone 6 with an identical screen, but improving its performance with the new A9 processor and allegedly twice the RAM than its predecessor. The cameras have also improved with ability to record 4K, and pink promises to cause a sensation.

iPhone 6s Plus

IPhone 6s Plus compared to his little brotherIPhone 6s Plus compared to his little brother

  • Release Date: September 2015
  • OS: iOS 9.0
  • Display: 5.5" - 1,080 x 1,920 pixels
  • Storage: 16, 64 and 128GB
  • RAM: 2 GB
  • Main camera 12 Mpx
  • Secondary Camera 5 Mpx
  • Battery: 2,915 mAh

Obviously, the iPhone 6S Plus is the iPhone 6 Plus what the 6s to 6. This model becomes the best iPhone ever in terms of performance with the new A9 chip, improved camera at 12 and 5 Mpx respectively the arrival of 3D Touch this new phone.

iPhone

iPhone color range SEiPhone color range SE / Nobuyuki Hayashi edited CC 2.0 license

  • Release Date: March 2016
  • OS: iOS 9.0
  • Display: 4" - 640 x 1136 pixels
  • Storage: 16 and 64 GB
  • RAM: 2 GB
  • Main camera 12 Mpx
  • Secondary Camera: 1.2 Mpx
  • Battery: 1,624 mAh

IPhone SE or Special Edition marked a return to the small screen (in this case, 4 inches) after Apple's foray into increasingly large diagonals. As for the design, its appearance is almost identical to the iPhone 5s (Same screen resolution), though with somewhat better components, doubling the RAM, increasing battery capacity and maintaining the same rear camera that the iPhone 6S, with whom he also shares processor. That is, aunaba eighth design generation components ninth.

tenth generation

iPhone 7

The black colored iPhone 7The black colored iPhone 7

  • Release Date: September 2016
  • Operating System: iOS 10
  • Display: 4.7" - 750 x 1334 pixels
  • Storage: 32, 128 and 256 GB
  • RAM: 2 GB
  • Main camera 12 Mpx
  • Secondary camera 7 Mpx
  • Battery: 1,960 mAh

The tenth generation of smartphones brand apple bite was filed on September 7, 2016, during the annual keynote of Apple, at the same conference where the famous headphones AirPods and possibly mobile game of the year were announced, with GO permit Pokémon, Super Mario Run. IPhone 7 is very similar to the iPhone 6s, with some improvements to the front camera, more internal storage space by default and, of course, the new version of mobile operating system iOS 10. On the other hand, the phones that came to sale on September 16 came with a new color range that included the famous jet black, and as most important innovation is remarkable the absence of the 3.5 mm jack for audio output, now replaced by a lightning port.

iPhone 7 Plus

The color range of iPhone 7 PlusThe color range of iPhone 7 Plus

  • Release Date: September 2016
  • Operating System: iOS 10
  • Display: 5.5" - 1,080 x 1,920 pixels
  • Storage: 32, 128 and 256 GB
  • RAM: 3 GB
  • Main camera 12 Mpx
  • Secondary camera 7 Mpx
  • Battery: 2,900 mAh

IPhone 7 Plus is a version of the iPhone supervitaminada 7. As is little brother, is aesthetically identical to the iPhone 6s although somewhat lighter, with the difference that the new colors are added, a small improvement in the camera Plus selfies and an increase in storage spaces. Logically, this phone is now is the top range of all smartphones and Apple first brand incorporate 3GB RAM, also eliminates the audio output of 3.5 mm, one of the most controversial decisions made by Cupertino in recent years.

eleventh generation

iPhone 8

Front iPhone 8 iPhone 8 PlusFront iPhone 8 iPhone 8 Plus

  • Release Date: September 2017
  • Operating System: iOS 11
  • Display: 4.7" - 750 x 1334 pixels
  • Storage: 64 and 256GB
  • RAM: 2 GB
  • Main camera 12 Mpx
  • Secondary camera 7 Mpx
  • Battery: 1,821 mAh

On September 12, 2017, Tim Cook took the stage of the new campus of Apple Park (Cupertino) to present the next generation of smartphones range of brand apple. The smallest of the three announced, the iPhone 8 is the natural evolution of the iPhone 7 keeping the same sizes and screen resolutions, and finally eliminating the 32 GB of internal memory that already was somewhat low. The main novelty of the first phone that incorporates iOS factory 11 is the change in metal to glass back device, facilitating wireless charging.

iPhone 8 Plus

IPhone 8 and 8 Plus are waterproofIPhone 8 and 8 Plus are waterproof

  • Release Date: September 2017
  • Operating System: iOS 11
  • Display: 5.5" - 1,080 x 1,920 pixels
  • Storage: 64 and 256GB
  • RAM: 3 GB
  • Main camera 12 Megapixel Dual
  • Secondary camera 7 Mpx
  • Battery: 2,675 mAh

If the iPhone in August was the evolution of the iPhone 7 should not surprise anyone that the iPhone is likewise 8 Plus 7 Plus. As in the case of his younger brother, Apple has maintained one year to the same dimensions and screen resolutions (plus RAM), reducing some battery capacity of 2,900 mAh passing to 2,675 mAh. We should also mention the introduction of a new chip (also present in the iPhone 8) Bionic A11 promises to be up to 70% more efficient than its predecessor. The photographic section is also noteworthy with two new sensors.

iPhone X

Front entire iPhone screen XFront entire iPhone screen X

  • Release Date: September 2017
  • Operating System: iOS 11
  • Display: 5.8" - 1125 x 2436 pixels
  • Storage: 64 and 256GB
  • RAM: 3 GB
  • Main camera 12 Megapixel Dual
  • Secondary camera 7 Mpx
  • Battery: 2,716 mAh

But undoubtedly the star product Keynote was the new iPhone X, a phone that breaks with the previous design at Apple, offering a smartphone 5.8-inch virtually frameless where everything is screen. Moreover screen uses OLED technology unlike the LCDs of the two iPhone 8. Tanta screen eliminates the use of TouchID (fingerprint recognition) to enter the new FaceID, facial recognition technology that promises to be revolutionary.

jwplayerLoad function () {

Yutaka} Tsutano edited CC 2.0 license

digital citizenship: what it means and how this concept of citizen

Cityscape

Lately the era of immediacy technology is advancing so much that has come to incorporate aspects of daily life, in the past, we could not have imagine. Citizens and not only interact with the physical world around them, but also have a rich digital life: open their personal blogs, interact in social networks sharing various types of content, collaborate online campaigns either by disseminating information about them or signing supportive and so on. Now some public agencies also encourage the participation of people over the Internet, which has created a concept known as "digital citizen".

We can give as definition of what is a digital citizen a person who uses information technology to contribute to society, the government of their city or country and politics. A digital citizen is a person who uses Internet actively and effectively. In order for a person is the considered as such must have skills and experience using the network either on computers, mobile phones and designed to interact with public and private organizations devices.

We can consider as the start of digital citizenship the time when any child, adolescent or adult own email account is created on the network share photos, buy via the Internet and is actively involved in politics or social issues.

However, the process of becoming a digital citizen It goes far beyond simple Internet activity. Digital citizenship can be combined with the promotion of equal economic opportunity as well as an increase in political participation and civic duty.

Differences between traditional and digital citizenship

As noted by the author Jose Manuel Robles Morales in his book Digital Citizenship: An Introduction to a new concept of citizenship which is available here- there fundamental differences between traditional digital citizen and a citizen.

According to this author exposes, citizenship from the 90s of XX century feels disaffection with society and politics which could have led to different countries of the First World in the situation where you are today. For a comparison, this perfectly reflects the situation of Spanish society regarding the political class and the situation in which the social mass itself is.

Digital citizenship, however, He decides to get involved in social and political issues as much as you can Internet broadcast as the main weapon, criticism and construction. An example of this would be the new tools of participation that the new Spanish political parties have made available to its members and supporters are -and participation or foros- platforms and their use of social networks such persons.

The truth is that, as such, digital citizenship is more settled in some countries than in others. In Estonia, for example, it is considered the Internet as a basic human right and allow its citizens to carry out their transactions through the network and to vote entirely electronically.

Social networks are part of the digital citizenshipSocial networks are part of the digital citizenship

The nine elements of digital citizenship

As we read on Digital Citizenship exist nine elements defining the digital citizenship:

  1. Access to the digital world. This is the most critical to becoming a digital citizen requirement. Due to difficulties such as socioeconomic status or location some individuals can not access regularly. Schools and public libraries can help alleviate this problem.
  2. digital commerce. This concept refers to the ability of users to recognize that much of the economy is controlled online. It also has to do with understanding the dangers and benefits of buying on the net, using credit cards and others.
  3. digital communication. This element deals with the understanding of different online media, ranging from email to instant messaging.
  4. digital literacy. With this reference to knowledge about how to use different digital devices it is made. An example of this would be to learn how to correctly use a search engine depending on the context-not the same thing Google searches in data- base.
  5. digital label. It refers to know how to behave when using digital communication. Each medium has its own rules.
  6. digital laws. In this context the legislation applied to illegal downloading content, plagiarism, hacking, creating viruses, spam campaigns, identity theft, cyberbullying and so moves.
  7. Digital rights and responsibilities. This concept refers to the digital citizen rights, such as privacy or freedom of expression is.
  8. digital health. Digital citizens must know the physical stress of Internet use as well as knowing what to do to not create addiction means.
  9. digital security. The ninth element refers to citizens should take the necessary security measures to move around the network with ease.

Anyone can be a digital citizen if you meet the nine elementsAnyone can be a digital citizen if you meet the nine elements

Digital Citizenship in the First and the Third World

In First World countries there is capacity rather than leftovers for link to their respective governments to various websites. These sites can work in several ways: clarifying the latest legislation, trends and future educational policy objectives to be implemented, assist political candidates and allowing citizens to express their political opinion.

Now, move certain aspects of political life Internet also it has its drawbacks. Lack of internet access in specific areas can reduce citizen participation, since many basic legal procedures have been moved to the network in some countries and can only be completed via the Internet. In addition, many cultural and commercial entities publish information only through the network.

This means that non-digital citizens You may not receive this information, which could lead to social exclusion or economic stagnation. The so-called "digital divide" is now a topic that is debated heatedly and in some places affects a large part of the population. It would be the case of Latin America, where 49% of the population is technologically isolated as reflected in the Mexican newspaper El Financiero.

In Third World countries digital citizens are very scarce. The group thrives on people using technology to overcome obstacles include difficulties in development, corruption and even military conflicts. Examples include users of Ushahidi during the Kenyan elections in 2007, as well as the Arab Spring demonstrators who used social media to document the repression of protests.

e-Estonia, the best example of digital citizenship in the First World

We have said before that the Estonian government has managed to seamlessly integrate digital citizenship within their structures. To do this you used a known as e-Estonia movement. Through this movement wanted facilitate citizen interaction with the state using electronic solutions, for what have used various sites and even mobile applications.

When the Baltic country got back to being an independent nation in 1991, the then Prime Minister, Mart Laar, helped promote a process of modernization which laid the foundations to bring Estonia into the digital age. Among other things they built their own digital telephone system, and in 1998 all schools had Internet access. Access to the network became a basic human right for Estonians in 2000, which also extended to rural areas.

2003 appear in the network Skype, client messaging and video calling is now owned by Microsoft, that millions of people use daily and which was written by Estonian developers. This is usually cited as an example of a society where companies and individuals have learned to make innovative use of new technologies.

There are two concepts that require special attention: home electronics and electronic voting. Electronic residence in Estonia was established in 2014, providing an opportunity for foreign investors to open businesses in the Baltic country from anywhere in the world but not have the same rights as a citizen right-full. Electronic voting has been a great innovation, because now all citizens can participate in the democratic process in Estonia from home.

jwplayerLoad function () {

}

Upload files to MEGA

Upload files to MEGA

Notice how MEGA upload files using either the default system as MEGAsync, the desktop client to sync with local files with your space in the cloud.

More

photos Erik Johansson Surréaliste, l’art avec Photoshop

Collage Creations Erik Johansson

Erik Johansson est dans le processus de création d'une galerie d'images incroyablement surréalistes en combinant l'utilisation des matières premières, des photographies et des changements surprenants réalisés avec Adobe Photoshop.

illusions d'optique incroyable de Erik Johansson

Ce photographe suédois vise à saisir les idées avec tous les matériaux qui traversent votre esprit. Le résultat est une vision totalement imaginaire, images que si elles étaient absolument impossible, peut sembler réaliste.

La photographie est la façon dont je collectionne matériel pour traduire mes idées dans ma tête.

modèles carton, peinture, des centaines de photos et des heures de retouche photo Ils obtiennent un tel résultat surprenant. endroits impossibles et des scènes imaginaires du sens même de contester la réalité, nous sommes habitués à voir à travers nos yeux.

Chacune de ses œuvres est unique et les vidéos suivantes auront la même artiste Comment son travail, combien d'heures que vous passez et les matériaux nécessaires pour chaque photo.

coupe & plier

Drifting Away

Landfall

Histoires sans fin

fermeture Out

Soundscapes

Comme vous pouvez le voir, l'artiste obtient brouiller les lignes entre l'intérieur et à l'extérieur, entre matériel et immatériel, défie les lois de la physique transformer le monde en quelque chose de complètement malléable. Sous son rafistolage, les routes sont floues, la neige devient feuille et homme brisé comme un vase. Avec toutes ces merveilles Johansson Il est d'apprendre à se faire un nom dans un monde avec beaucoup de concurrence et sera bientôt sur toutes les lèvres des photographes professionnels, sans aucun doute.

Si vous voulez profiter du reste de son œuvre, Erik Johansson montre chacune de ses œuvres sur son site.

source | Web Erik Johansson

jwplayerLoad fonction () {

}

Clona and falsifies web pages Clone Zone

cloning

If you could write anywhere you wanted, what would you write? Now you can resolve the doubt, more or less, Clone Zone. It is a web application that allows Clone web pages and modify its contents completely, including images that you can upload from your PC.

The complexity of the process of creating web clones will depend on how elaborate you want to make the replica, based on three steps:

  • Select a web to clone (articles, blog posts, pages ...).
  • Edit where you can write your own text and upload new images.
  • Cloned share the page with anyone using a single URL.

How to clone a website with Clone Zone?

Enter the URL

At the top of the tool you have a box where you enter the URL of the web to be cloned. Ideally it a blog or news sites. A page with lots of multimedia content might not work too well.

Modifies headlines and text

Now it has opened to you the web that will be changed. Pinches see that as any section highlights it and then you can start writing. You can copy and paste freely.

replaces images

You can also replace images easily. You just need to click on any of them and upload them from your computer or, if you prefer, use the Google search engine that integrates images Clone Zone.

Save and share

Finally just you have to choose a URL, edit its title and description and select an image to share.

We have chiquitizado Malavida

To test how this works Clone Zone We have used a invaluable tool: Chiquito Ipsum. This generates web content writing as would a Lorem Ipsum any style but much more because it's like if I did Chiquito de la Calzada.

Malavida cloneMalavida clone

The result can be seen here too. Not that this change will happen to the annals of web design, but go, everything is put ... Yes, to save websites and generate links will have to register as a user (free).

Fever: who wants to go to the movies for free?

Fever: who wants to go to the movies for free? - figure 4

If you live in Valencia, Madrid or New York and still do not know Fever, surely you pay for going to the movies. If you have a Smartphone, You cinephile and want to save, then you'll want to keep reading. A few months ago I got this app on my phone because I was told that I would go to the movies for 1 €. Since then, I have seen six films for less than 2 €. What how I did it? Follow these ten steps (based on my six experiences) and end up paying no price doliéndote caviar popcorn.

    Fever: who wants to go to the movies for free? - image 8

  1. Before going to the mess, I'll explain briefly What is it Fever. It is a mobile application (available for iOs Y Android) That lets you find and attend events in your city: from going to the movies for a snack at a coffee shop or practicing Zumba. I've only used to go to the movies. When you check in Fever (through Facebook or email), you have to choose three interests (among many). Select "cinema" and complete your profile. In "discount coupons" you'll see a turquoise circle with a sad zero and a case code numbers below. If you have reached Fever It is (almost certainly) because a friend has recommended it you. If you do not know the code for anyone because you've reached the app Thanks to this article, then uses the JAVIERA186 code, which is mine. When inserted, your zero is converted to 5 €. That easy. Now, when you navigate between the different events that appear based on your interests, you look to buy a movie ticket you have to go to the announcement of a particular film. You will several times a day, and you can only view plans for "today", "tomorrow" and "after".
  2. Fever: who wants to go to the movies for free? - image 7

  3. "But I want to see The Hobbit and I get no ", you are thinking. Nothing happens, do not panic. Choose any movie, Whichever. Yes: it must be within the established timetable (today, tomorrow or later, you can not buy a ticket to go to the movies within fifteen days). In announcing any film you will see the title of it and below schedule, cinemas where the project (see item 5) and the price paid (6.1 €).
  4. "But you want to see The Hobbit at 19:00, not 22:50, "you think now. No problem. The announcement tells you a reference time, but you can choose the schedule that interests you when you go to redeem the entry into the lockers.
  5. You've chosen "Night at the Museum" at 22:50, for example (but then you'll see "The Hobbit" at 19:00 in VOSE), purchasing the entrance (just ask you card number and expiration date) and send you an email with a code. The email you entered is entering Fever or that is associated with your account Facebook. And your first ticket purchased Fever You just cost 1.1 €. Do you think expensive for the fuss? @ Tranquil, you can go free. Just to convince people that they should lower their app and enter your code. When they do, they will give 1 € per person to enter your code to 5 € more if they buy a plan. If, for example convince one person (your boyfriend, your girlfriend, your father, your mother, your grandfather or whoever), just one, and you will have 5 € initial you got to put my code (or who I advised him), 1 € to convince that person (that will put your code) and another 5 € if you buy something (thanks to you). Therefore, you already have 11 € in your account. Now when you buy a ticket, even if you put your card data, they will not take away anything, not a penny, and you still have 4.9 € for future purchases.
  6. Fever: who wants to go to the movies for free? - image 2

  7. The first time I went to the movies with Fever I not convinced anyone and I paid the ten euro. It is important to say that you can only watch movies in Yelmo cinemas. No more cinemas to collaborate with Fever. Once you have purchased your ticket, you turn to the Yelmo cinemas, you go up the escalator and once up, there is a dreadful queue are 18:50, "The Hobbit" begins in ten minutes and I still do not have the entry!
  8. When it's finally your turn, you open your email and will dictate the ten-digit code the woman with glasses box office. Wait, before confessing the code, what is better to say? I recommend you start with: "Hello, I have a code Fever". Then you will say, "What movie?". Although you bought "Night at the Museum" (something that should never confess), you say: "The Hobbit at 19:00, please" and will dictate the code. You probably say that is one place in line 3. Damn. You'll Gandalf eat potatoes, not popcorn. You know for next time: if you buy a ticket with Fever, you will touch go to redeem your ticket at the box office the sooner the better.
  9. Fever: who wants to go to the movies for free? - image 6

  10. When I swapped first entry, I could do it, in turn, for these films I saw on different days. For example, I went on a Saturday to redeem an entry that already had "bought" for Sunday and did not put me any hits. I was alone again and said two codes (mine and a friend who could not come to redeem its entry), and there was no problem. Not now. Now just give you one entry per person to physically go to the ticket office to dictate their code and, if they like you and teach them the email confirmation of the person who is not, perhaps you give your input. It often happens that your friend is parked and you, to gain time, you're redeeming your input. You know: you forward your email, just in case. And now you can only go the same day, and the box office open at 17:00. You can not redeem tickets for a different day than today. Or if? It depends on what majo and maja to be the rate at the box office. That's my reflection after six films exchanged with Fever in Yelmo. Go two hours before the start of "The Hobbit" and you find around (or ten) by Decathlon.
  11. Regarding the end of paragraph 6: even though you're redeeming the entrance and the film has already started ... tranquil @! The movie has not started yet! Always put ads ad nauseam and movies start with a delay of a quarter of an hour, minimum. The Yelmo are not a chain of Swiss cinemas. Take it easy.
  12. You've gone once the film has left you free and your girlfriend has cost 1.1 € (because she put your code, and you first bought later). If you feel bad, you can pay half (55 cents) or ask her popcorn. At the end you'll be expensive ... Next time, you still have 4.9 € (11 € that started at the expense of your naive girlfriend) and entry will cost € 1.2 (because, let us not forget, all movie tickets Fever always worth 6,1 €). But you can convince friends, or uncles, or grandparents, or cousins, and get free eurillos. Of the six times I've gone I, the first is the only time I paid € 1.1; fifth, 40 cents. The second, third, fourth and sixth time: free. One who has friends!
  13. Fever: who wants to go to the movies for free? - picture 3

  14. You have run out of friends and turquoise circle is zero ranker. I confess a trick: you can create an email account, immediately afterwards make an account of Facebook new (With that email), log in Fever and reentering the newly created account Facebook. Put the code of your girlfriend (or mine) and ... you've got (again) your top 5 €! Why pay 7 € or more when you can go for free or for just over 1 €? Do not try to enter Fever with another email account, because it does not work; Fever Just click if you enter a Facebook different.

If you still want to go to the "free" movies, you are passionate about gymkhanas Y Fever continues to maintain working relationships with Yelmo cinemas, I suggest you try it fully. I say it's worth. If you get to step 8 (you've only gone once and you have forgotten some Fever) And spend a few weeks, the app will send you a notice telling you: "Do not you feel like going to the movies? Hurry up, otherwise your credit will expire. " Do not make them much attention to me I have never expired.

CyanogenMod vs. Cyanogen OS, what is the difference?

CyanogenMod vs. Cyanogen OS, what is the difference?

If you are Android fans safe world that, sometime in your life, you will have heard the word CyanogenMod. This little word refers to one of the most famous third-ROMs Android, intended to replace the operating system to smartphones come standard to give them a second life or improve performance. Moreover, and so far few years ago, we Cyanogen OS, which he came with OnePlus One and now we see more and more. However, they are not at all the same, despite being developed by the same "business". What differences are there? Why are there two systems and not just one?

Before you begin, let's clarify some terminology

To write this article we will use a terminology that not everyone knows. Therefore the first thing to do is to know the terms and then already, we will further the merits that concerns us in this article.

  • ROM: Is a file format generally -comprimido .zip- that basically contains all data on the operating system that will be installed. It can be found in other formats such as .tot.

  • ROM stock: Is the version of Android that is installed by the manufacturer.

  • modified ROM: It is an alternative version of the operating system manufacturer, created by the community and seeks to add features or improve performance.

  • Layer Customization: Each manufacturer gets Android and modifies following lines design, giving it a different look and more functions. This modification is the personalization layer (TouchWiz UX, Sense ...).

  • pure Android: The appearance of Android default. A Nexus phone, for example, has Android pure, with an appearance unmodified by a manufacturer.

  • bloatware: Applications preinstalled by the manufacturer looking to add features or replace Google applications (applications operator or manufacturer). Generally you can not be uninstalled.

  • AOSP: acronym for Android Open Source Project refers to the project led by Google Android that seeks to maintain and develop it. Basically, it is the source code of Android that is not modified by any manufacturer.

  • Root or root: It is equivalent to administrator in Windows, and basically allows the user to modify the system, which is blocked by default by the manufacturer.

  • Recovery modified: It is an alternative recovery menu which allows, among other things, to back up the operating system, format the phone and install ROMs or modified applications.

What is CyanogenMod?

CyanogenMod 13 is based on Android MarshmallowCyanogenMod 13 is based on Android Marshmallow

As we discussed in this article, CyanogenMod is a alternative version of Android based on AOSP which seeks to combat obsolescence phones and tablets with Android ROMs creating pure for the vast majority of smartphones. That way, even if your phone is old, you can still enjoy operating system updates and security patches, giving a new second life and allowing not have to change phone every so little time.

Being an open source version, no bloatware, and also Anyone can catch your source code and make your own version of CyanogenMod. The problem is that having so many different terminals, it is impossible to get a stable version at the same time, so to be launched Daily updates that fix bugs and add functions.

To install CyanogenMod on a phone we are forced to become user root and install a modified recovery which allows us to make modifications to the system. This is one of the biggest handicaps of this famous ROM: for install You have to do some operations that will void the warranty and they are not safe-for the Middle- user.

CyanogenMod launches daily updates to correct error and improve safetyCyanogenMod launches daily updates to correct error and improve safety

The main obstacle in the development of CyanogenMod, especially with high-end phones is that many of the drivers are private, that is, they are not accessible to CyanogenMod or community, which makes high-end terminals lose functions -For example, if you install CyanogenMod on the LG G3, you can not use the infrared sensor, because the drivers are private and LG does not want liberarlos-.

CyanogenMod began collaborating with different companies (bq, OnePlus, Alcatel ..) to lAnzar their phones with their own version of the operating system -as an alternative to Google- but companies do not like or that there are failures in the system or that they can not install their own applications (Bloatware) on their phone (something that goes against the idiosyncrasies of CyanogenMod). There arises Cyanogen OS.

What is Cyanogen OS?

The OnePlus One was the first terminal to have factory-installed Cyanogen OSThe OnePlus One was the first terminal to have factory-installed Cyanogen OS / Maurizio Pesce edited CC 2.0 license

At the request of the companies, CyanogenMod was forced to launch stable versions of its operating system, but closed, not open source. That way, you can not access the source code of these versions and the manufacturer can install applications on the system while in CyanogenMod can be uninstalled in Cyanogen OS no.

On the other hand, when a company uses to install Android on their handsets, Google requires your -Maps, Google+, Drive ... applications - are installed next to the applications that the manufacturer wants to install. Cyanogen OS, tol being independent of Google, does not carry these applications installed, but all that the manufacturer wants. It also has an alliance with Microsoft, and install some proprietary applications, but are options.

Finally, while CyanogenMod is the organization itself that draws the updates in Cyanogen OS, is the manufacturer which updates the terminal, which it gives, in a sense, a life on the phone, something that goes against the original philosophy of CyanogenMod.

Cyanogen OS is the commercial version of CyanogenMod

We can say that Cyanogen OS It arises from the need for CyanogenMod to become commercial. In fact, one can not live without the other. CyanogenMod needs funding to continue its development and ideas needed Cyanogen OS Android Community and the development of CyanogenMod to continue to exist. The commercial version does not exist without the open source version and the free version could not continue without Cyanogen OS. Whiting that bites the tail.

It is interesting also that if you have a phone with Cyanogen OS, you can install and set aside CyanogenMod version manufacturer, something that many people do not have to be tied to a company and the life of your terminal does not depend on the profit or loss of a company.

jwplayerLoad function () {
}

How to use a QR code to share a WiFi network

QR code scanning

Today we use wireless connections for everything. The cable seems to be falling into disuse except frank and honorable few exceptions, and since a good portion of domestic electronic devices are connected without using wired ports. For example, we can listen to music through speakers or Bluetooth headset. When we are on the street, your smartphone connects to the Internet using wireless networks. Moreover, indoors our phones are connected to the network through the use of a WiFi access point. In this access point other household devices are also concentrated, such as laptops and tablets.

These WiFi networks are identified by an SSID and password protected. These elements are essential to access the Internet through one of them, and it is common for our friends ask us when they come to visit us. Now if you have a secure password difficult to remember, then it can be a problem. To resolve this is the best QR codes use.

Share your WiFi password with QR codes, the best way

As we have already mentioned, suppose you are a person aware of the security risks involved have a weak password for your WiFi. When someone asks for your password is surely a muddle give it, and having to find a balance between easy to remember and secure It can be tricky. If you follow the steps we are going to give you in this guide you will not have to worry about finding that balance anymore.

Creating the QR code on the web and download

QR Code GeneratorQR Code Generator

For create the QR code let's turn to the web QR Code Generator, which will allow us to generate codes for different necessities: enter a web, access a document, an identity card, an event or a WiFi password.

Click the lock icon you see on the screen and direct you to options to create a QR code that points to a wireless network. You will see that there are different fields: the type of encryption key, the network SSID and password. Fill in the three fields as appropriate:

  • In Encryption you must specify whether your encryption key is WPA or WEP. Generally this can be known by looking under the router.
  • SSID / Network Name you have to enter your network ID. This case is called Malavida network.
  • In Password you will need to enter the password to access the network as it appears on your router, or you have defined yourself if you've changed.

Once you have filled these fields, you'll download a JPEG or PNG image with your QR code, ready to be scanned and your friends connect to your network.

Connecting to WiFi using the QR code

The first thing you need is a smartphone Android or iPhone and application as QR Droid in the case of Android, or Scanner Zapper on iOS. As we have them downloaded, we open them and see how the camera terminal starts to operate. Put the code more or less centered on the screen and see something like this:

QR Droid after reading the connection dataQR Droid after reading the connection data

Click on Connect to the network or where appropriate, and thus we'll be connected to the WiFi network.

As you can see QR create a code and use it to share data with our friends WiFi It's very simple, and no longer you have to be thinking about finding a balance between safe and easy to remember. Worth a try.

jwplayerLoad function () {
}